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Abstract


Jorie Graham’ın Şiirinde Metaforik / Metonik Söylem

The paper investigates why Jorie Graham’s poetic discourse is predominantly metonymical, that is, how one topic or concept leads to another on the basis of their contiguity and closeness, and much less than on the basis of similarity of concepts through comparison, which is more conducive to metaphoric language structures. I apply Jakobson’s theory of the two processes of discourse formation, the metonymic and the metaphoric, bearing in mind his warning that one can never exclude the other, as both are present in any language behavior. The predominance of metonymy over metaphor in Graham’s poetry is examined at the level of (i) individual tropes and (ii) as a structure of poetic discourse developed on the basis of the two processes: either metonymic combination or metaphoric selection and comparison. It is important to note that although prevalent, the metonymic structure does not exclude metaphors as tropes and metaphoric structure are imbedded in particular sections of Graham’s longer poems, especially the fragmentary and symbolic parts. Thus, Graham’s poetics of discovery, the unending and unfinished process which the poems capture, are conducive to metonymic verbal structures, while her symbolic (metaphoric) discourse operates, according to Jakobson’s paradigmatic vertical axis, by selecting and comparing similar linguistic units, an operation which is invisible in language.



Keywords
metonymic, metaphoric, discourse, Jakobson, poetry, Jorie Graham



Kaynakça

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Wisconsin Press.

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Gardner, T. (2003). The Art of poetry no. 85. Paris Review 65.

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Graham, J. (1987). The end of beauty. New York: The Ecco Press.

Graham, J. (1993). Materialism. Hopewell, NJ: The Ecco Press.

Graham, J. (1996). The dream of the unified field. Selected poems 1974-1994. Manchester:  Carcanet Press.

Graham, J. (2008-2012). Retrieved from <http://www.joriegraham.com/vendler_moment_1995>.

Graham, J. (2008-2012). Retrieved from <http: www.joriegraham.com/bedient_lexicon_2005>.

Graham, J. (2008-2012). Retrieved from <http://www.joriegraham.com/gardner 2003>.

Jakobson, R. & Halle, M. (1956). Fundamentals of language. The Hague: Mouton & Co–’S-Gravenhage.

Jakobson, R. 1960. Style in language. Thomas A. Sebeok (Ed). Cambridge, MA: M.I.T. Press.

Jakobson, R. (1987). Language in literature. Krystyna Pomorska and Stephen Rudy (Eds.). Cambridge: Bleknap-Harvard

University Press.

Lodge, D. (1997). The modes of modern writing: Metaphor, metonymy, and the typology of modern literature. London:

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Simpson, P. (2004). Stylistics: A resources book for students. London: Routledge.

Vendler, H. (1995). Jorie Graham: The moment of excess. The breaking of style: Hopkins, Heaney, Graham. Cambridge,

MA: Harvard UP.

Gelişmiş Arama


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